In 2005 Kazan celebrated its millennial anniversary. Kazan as a city was founded in early Middle Ages by the Volga Bulgars, although the place had been a stop on the Volga trade route from Scandinavia to Baghdad between 11th and 12th centuries. Islam was adopted by Volga Bulgarians in the early tenth century. After the Mongols devastated neighborhood areas in the 13th century, migrants resettled Kazan. According to main theory it was the time, when the first Kazan Kremlin was built. Kazan was in dependency of the Golden Horde. In the 1430 Hordian Tatars usurped power from its Bolgar dynasty. In 1438, after the destruction of the Golden Horde, Kazan became the capital of the powerful Khanate of Kazan. Kazan was re-conquered for Russia by Ivan the Terrible, in 1552. Most of the khanates’s Tatar residents were killed or forcibly Christianized. Mosques and palaces were ruined. The settlement suffered from fires and revolts. A famous rebel Emelyan Pugachev burned the ancient Kazan Kremlin, but it was rebuilt shortly afterwards during the reign of Catherine the Great. She also allowed tatars to build new mosques. During the Russian Empire period Kazan became the center of industry, education, especially cultural and oriental studies. In the Soviet Period of Russian history Kazan was one of the centers of Revolution, young Lenin studied at the Kazan State University. In the 1920s and 1930s, most of the city’s mosques and churches were destroyed, as occurred elsewhere in the USSR, because the USSR denied any religion. In 1979, the city’s population reached the number of 1 million. Nowadays it is already 1,176,187 inhabitants. It is where the Asian East meets the Russian West, the population evenly divided between the Volga Tatars (47,6%) and Russians (48,6%). The Tatars are Sunni Muslims, and the Russians are Eastern Orthodox Christians, but some of people profess Catholicism, Protestantism, Judaism and the Bahá’í Faith.
The old picture of Kazan
Timeline of Kazan
922 – Volga Bolgaria accepted Islam religion as state religion.
985 – Volga Bolgaria declared peace treaty with Kievan Rus.
1005 – Kazan city was founded.
1446 – Kazan city is the capital city of Kazan Khanate.
1486 – “Eternal peace treaty” between Russia and Kazan city.
1552 – Ivan the Terrible siege of Kazan; fall of the Kazan city.
Korovin P.I. Ivan the Terrible siege of Kazan
1556 – construction of modern Kremlin
1708 – Russian Kazan is the capital of Kazan province.
1742 – The highest peak of persecution of Muslim people for their religion.
1774 – Kazan city was captured during the rebellion of peasants headed by E. Pugachev.
E.Pugachev siege of Kazan
1788 – Catherine II returns the right to worship religion of Islam.
1804 – Kazan University was founded.
1917 – “Republic beyond the Bulak” was defeated by Red Army troops after the October Bolshevik revolution.
1920 – Kazan is a capital of Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialistic Republic (and then Tatarstan)
1979 – population is over 1 million inhabitants
1989 – The celebrations of 1100th anniversary of Islam religion acceptance by people of Volga area according to Muslim chronology.
1990 – 8 August: Yeltsin gives speech (“as much sovereignty as you can swallow”) in Kazan. Tatarstan Republic signes declaration of sovereignty.
1994 – Two-way state treaty between Tatarstan and Russian Federation was signed.
2005 – Kazan city millennium celebrations.
2013 – Summer Universiade (athletic event) held in Kazan.
2015 – World Aquatics Championship in Kazan